A dietary supplement should only contain necessary ingredients in physiologic amounts. This is why Impryl was formulated to provide essential and semi-essential micronutrients in quantities that approximate the FDA/National Institute of Medicine recommended daily allowances. These micronutrients support 1C metabolism, a universal biochemical network that is important for women and men who are trying to conceive.
1.4 mg/capsule (108% RDA)
Found in: Lean meat, eggs, low-fat milk, asparagus, spinach, broccoli and grains.*
Important for: growth, development and function of the cells in your body.**
Niacin (As Niacinamide)
16 mg/capsule (100% RDA)
Found in: meat, fish, poultry, avocado, whole grain, green peas and potatoes.*
Important for: regulation of enzymes with critical functions, including gene expression and cellular communication.**
Vitamin B6 (As Pyridoxine HCl)
1.4 mg/capsule (82% RDA)
Found in: fruits, vegetables and grains.*
Important for: metabolism of one-carbon units, carbohydrates, lipids, neurotransmitter biosynthesis and control of homocysteine levels.**
Folic Acid (As 5-MTHF)
400 mcg/capsule (100% RDA)
Found in: asparagus, brussels sprouts, spinach, oranges, nuts, beans, peas and fortified breads and cereals.*
Important for: DNA and RNA replication, cellular proliferation, and proper neural development during pregnancy.**
Vitamin B12 (As methylcobalamin)
2.4 mg/capsule (104% RDA)
Found in: clams, fish, meat, poultry, eggs milk, and some fortified foods, including breakfast cereals.*
Important for: maintaining the health of nerve and blood cells, and DNA synthesis.**
Zinc (As Zinc Bisglycinate)
10 mg/capsule (91% RDA)
Found in: oysters, red meat, poultry, seafood, beans, nuts, whole grains and dairy.*
Important for: immune system function, protein and DNA synthesis, and proper growth and development during pregnancy.**
Betaine (As Betaine HCl)
200 mg/capsule (RDA not established)
Found in: turkey breast, beef, veal, shrimp, beets, spinach, quinoa, brown rice and sweet potato.
Important for: a source of methyl groups, which can be used to remethylate homocysteine and form methionine.**
200 mg/capsule (RDA not established)
Found in: pork, beef, chicken, fish, lentils, oatmeal, eggs, sunflower seeds and cheese.
Important for: production of the antioxidant glutathione, regulation of glutamate levels and detoxification.**
**These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.
Activated Essential Micronutrients
5-Methyltetrahydrofolate / Methylcobalamin
The folate and methionine cycles of 1C metabolism are dependent upon biosynthesis of two activated donor molecules, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF; activated Vitamin B9) and methylcobalamin (activated Vitamin B12), to ensure that nucleotides are available for DNA/RNA synthesis (learn why DNA/RNA synthesis is important), homocysteine is recycled to methionine and S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) is available for methylation reactions (learn why methylation is important). Although these cycles occur normally in most people, you might be surprised to learn that as many as 30-50% of people worldwide carry genetic variants that decrease the available pools of 5-MTHF and methylcobalamin (see Genetic Variants below) and compromise 1C metabolism. Given their critical nature of these two essential micronutrients, we formulated Impryl to contain both of them in physiologically relevant amounts to support 1C metabolism in all people.
Betaine / L-Cystine
In addition to the folate and methionine cycles, 1C metabolism consists of the betaine and transsuluration pathways. In the former, Impryl contains betaine (trimethyl-glycine) as an alternative to folate as a methyl donor for homocysteine recycling to methionine (learn why homocysteine recycling is important). Although it can can be produced from choline (see figure above) within mitochondria, betaine may be deficient in the presence of mitochondrial dysfunction. Cysteine is considered a semi-essential micronutrient because although it can be produced endogenously by the CBS reaction (see figure above), the amounts are typically insufficient and therefore must be consumed in the form of cysteine-containing proteins. Impryl contains L-cystine (two molecules of cysteine) to support glutathione production absent adequate quantities in the diet (Learn why glutathione is important).
Other Essential Micronutrients
Vitamin B2 / B3 / B6 / Zinc
All enzymes, including those involved in 1C metabolism, need cofactors to maximize the efficiency of the chemical reactions they catalyze. For this reason, Impryl was formulated to contain Vitamin B2, B3 and B6 to facilitate biosynthesis of endogenous 5-MTHF in the folate cycle, zinc to facilitate biosynthesis of methionine through the folate cycle and betaine pathway, and zinc and Vitamin B6 to facilitate biosynthesis of cystathionine through the transsulfuration pathway.
MTHFR and MTRR Mutations
Mutations in the gene encoding methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), an enzyme in the folate cycle, prevent normal biosynthesis of 5-MTHF (activated Vitamin B9), while mutations in the gene encoding methionine synthase reductase (MTRR), an enzyme in the methionine cycle, prevent biosynthesis of methylcobalamin (activated Vitamin B12). Surprisingly, these mutations can occur in up to 50% and 30%, respectively, of people worldwide, and may lead to elevated levels of homocysteine, which is a definitive risk factor for various human reproductive health issues. To account for these genetic variations, Impryl contains 5-MTHF and methylcobalamin, and in their absence, the activated vitamins function as additional donor molecules for 1C metabolism.